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Turkey

From one of the authorities on Ottoman History, Stanley Lane Pooles Turkey brings you in from the origins of the ottomans as the steppe people pushed out of Central Asia by the Monguls, to the power house of the ottoman empire.


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CONTENTS

I INTRODUCTION

The thirteenth century an epoch in Europtan history 1 - and in Asia, 2 The Mongols. 2 The Turks, 4 The Seljucks, 5 The Mongols again, 6 The distribution of the Turks, 6 Seljuks of Iconium, 8 Battle of Angora, 8 KstaMishnicnl of Ertoghrul and the Turks, 9 Sultanoni, 10 Birth of ihman the Ottoman dominion, 16 War with the Eastern Enipiro, 19 Conquest of Brusa, 23 Death of Othman, 23.

II. Across the Hellespont. 1326-1380

Orkhan, 25 Contiucst of Nicomedia, Nicaea, an mon, 25 Organization of the state and anny, 26 The Janissaries. 27 SipahLs, 31 Causes of the success of the ( Htonians, 32 Relations with the Eastern Empire, 33 -The Turks in Europe, 34 Capture of allipoli, 34 Murad L. 35 Slavs, 36 War with Hungarians, Serbians36 Battle of the Maritza, 36 Advance of the Ottoman dominion in Europe, 39 and in Asia, 40.

III. Kosovo and Nicopolis. i 380-1 402 , , . 42-59

War with the Serbians, 42 Battle of Kosovo, 43


IV. Timur the Tartar. 1402 .... 60-73

Bayezld's power, 60 Timur, 63 Siege of Si was, 65 Second battle of Angora, 66 Captivity and death of Bayezld, 72 Apparent destruction of the Ottoman power, 73.

V. Mohammed the Restorer. 1402-1 421 . , 74-84

Vitality of the Turkish rule, 74 Causes, 75 Organization and education, 76 Mohnmmed I., 78 Civil war, 79 Re- storation of order and authority, 80 M hammed the "gen- tleman," 83 His death, 83.

VI Murad II. AND Hunyady. I42I-I451 . . 85-98

Murad II., 85 Siege of Constantinople, 86 Hunyady, 87 Relief of Hermannstadt, 88 Passage of the Balkan, 89 - Treaty of Szegedin, 89 Abdication of Murad, 89 Perfidy of the Christians, 90 Return of Murad, 91 Battle of Varna, 92 vSecond battle of Kosovo, 96 Death of Murad, 96 Siege of Belgrade, 97 St. John Capistran, 97 Death of Hunyady, 98.

VII. The Fall of Constantinople. 1451-1481 . 1 01-139

Mohammed II. Quarrel with Constantine Palaeologus, 107 Sieges of Constantinople, 108 The final siege, 108

Xll

Assassination of Murad I., 45 Bayezld I., 46 Despina, 49

Subjugation of Serbii suid Wallachia, 49, 50 Crusade 

against the Turks, 51 Battle of Nicopolis, 55 Massacre of prisoners, 57.

XIII==

Death of Constantine, 125 Capture of the city, 129 War in the north, 133 Scanderbeg, 133 War with Venice, 135

Negropont, Crimea, Rhodes, 136 Conquest of Otranto 

and death of Mohammed IL, 139. VIII.

Prince Jem. 1481-1512 .... 140 151 Bayend II., 140 ITs inaction and deposition, 140- 1 Prince Jem, 141 Takes refuge with the Knights of Rh<xies, and is made prisoner, 142 Transferred to Nice, 145, and Rome, 146, and is probably poisoned by the Pope, Alexander Borgia, 149-150.

IX. The Conquest of Egypt. 1512-1520 . 152 164 Selim II ( the Grim), 152 Murder of his kindred, 152 His hterary talent, 153 His policy, 153 Persian history, 154 Shia?, 15$ Selhn massacres the heretics, 155- -War with Shah Ismail, 156 Battle of Chaldiran, 157 The Mani- luk Sultans of Egypt and Syria, 158 Their valour, 159 - Their mosques and palaces, 160 Selim marches against tlicni, 161 Battles of Marj iJabik, Gaza, and Kcydaniya, 161 - Conquest of Egypt, 162 Selim becomes Khalif, 162, and dies, 163.

X. SULEYMAN THE MAGNIFICENT. 152O-1566 . 165-204

A great , 165 Suleyman and his contemporaries, 166 His character, 169 Capture ot Belgrade, 169- Conquest of Rhodes, 170 Ibrahim the ijrand Vezir, 173 Invasion of Hungary, 174 Battle of Mohacs. 179 P\ill of Biula, Pesth, Gran, Comorn, Raab. and Altenburg, 180 Advance on Vimna, 183 The defence. 184 The siege, 187 The re- treat, 190 Peace of Constantinople, 191 Siege of Sziget- var, 192 Nicholas Zriny , 192 Death of Sul'-yman, 192 Roxelana, 195 Turkish admirals, Barbarossa, Dragut, Piali, 196 Sulejrman's Empire, 196.

XI. The Downward Road, i 566-1640 . . 205-220

The turn of the tide, 205 Causes of the decline, 206 Selim the Sot, 208 Sokolli Mohammed, 208 Sinan Pasha, 208 Expedition to Astrakhan, 208 Conquest of Cyprus, 208-9 Battl« of Lepanto, 209 Don John of Austria, 209 Uluj All, 210 Peace with Venice, 210 Murad III. and Mohammed III., 213 Safia, 213 Count Cicala, 213 Battle of the Keresztes, 213 Ahmed I., 214 English em- bassy, 214 Miirad IV., 217 Conquest of Georgia, 217 Mutiny of Sipahi-, 218 Severity of the Sultan, 219 Con- quest of Baghdad, 219 Death of Murad IV., 220.

XII. The Rule of the Vezirs. 1640-1757 . 221-242

The Koprili family, 221 Koprili Mohammed, 221 Koprili- zada Ahmed, 222 Battle of St. Gotthard, 222 Montecuculi, 222 Conquest of Candia, 225 Morosini, 225 War with Poland, 225 ^John Sobieski, 225 Battles of Choczim and Lemberg, 225 Kara Mustafa, Grand Vezir, 226 Invasion of Austria, 227 Second siege of Vienna, 228 Sobieski comes to the reHef, 231 Defeat of the Turks, 236 Vienna save*), 237 Mohammed IV., the sports nan, 237 Treatment of am- bassadors, 238 Second battle of Mohacs, 239 Buda retaken by the Christians, 239 Morosini in Greece, 239 Koprili-zada Mustafa, 240 War with Austria, 240 - Battle of Slankamen, 240 Mustafa II., 240 Battle of Zenta, 241 Mediation of Lord Paget, 241 Peace of Carlowitz, 241 Prince Eugene takes Belgrade, 241 Peace of Passarowitz, 241 Turkey no longer a menace to Christendom, 242.

XIII. The Rise of Russia. 1696- 1812 . . . 243-259

Traditional origin of the Russians, 243 Novgorod, 244 Rurik, 245 Kiev, 245 Olga becomes a Christian, 246 Vladimir the Great, 246 Moscow, 246 Incursions of Tartars, 247 Batu at Liegnitz, 247 The Golden Horde, 248 Alex- ander Nevski, 248 Ivan the Great, 249 Diplomatic inter-


CONTENTS. XV

course with Turkey, 248 Early attacks on the Bosphorus, 250 Ivan the Terrible, 251 The Astrdkhan expedition, 251

Peter the Great, 252  The Sultan protects Charles II. of 

Sweden, 253 Peter surrounded at the Pruth, 253 Peace of Belgrade, 254 Treaty of Kaynarji, 254 Catherine the Great, 254, vis'ts the Crimea, 255 - -Siege of Ochakov, 256 Suvo- rov, 256 Treaty of Yassy, 256 Tilsit, 257 Sir Robert Adair, 258 Stratford Canning, 258 Treaty of Bucharest, 259 Its effect upon Napoleon's retreat from Moscow, 259.

XIV. Isanbull 260-301

Site, 260 Christian suburbs, 265 Palaces of the Sultan, 266

The Old Seraglio, 267  The treasury, 273  Relics, 275  

The cage, 275- The harem, 276- Officers of the Seraglio, 276

Ladies of the harem, 291  Abd-ul- Aziz's privy purse, 293  

A m. dieval embassy, 294.

==XV. Ottoman Literature 302-323 Characteristics, 302 Monorhyme, 303 Ghazel, 303 Scj, 303 Ghazi Fazil, 304 Sheykhl, 304 Yaziji-oghlu's Moham- mediya History of the Forty Vezirs Mir All Shir Nevayi, 309 Ahmed Pasha, 309 Sinan Pasha, 309 Nejatl and Zati, Zeyneb, Mihri, 310 Poetry of Selim I., 310 Ibn-Kemal, 311 ^Joseph and Zuleykha, 311 Mesihl, 311 Fuzuli, 312 BakT, 314 Nefi, 315 Sabri, 315 Nabi, 318 Raghib Pasha and Sami, 318 - Nedim, 318 Prose since the conquest of Constantinople, 320 Sa'd-ucl-din, 320 Nalma, 320 Evliya, 321 Haji Khali!*a, 321 Sheykh Ghalib, 321 Transition period, 321 Wasif, 322 Motlern school, 322 Akif and Reshid Pasha, 323 Shinasi, Kemal, Ekrem, and 1 1 amid Beys, 323.

XVI. The Ottoman Administration . . . 324-339

The Sultan, 324 State functionaries, 327 Companions of the Pen, 327 The Tughra, 329 Companions of the Sword,


Xvi

330 Ducal government, 331 Men of Law, 333 The Divan, or Council. 335 The Kapudan Pasha, 336 The Grand Vezir, 336 Declaration of War, 336 Siate robes, 339 Modern innovations, 339.

The Sick Man. 1812-1880 .... 340-365 

Characteristics of the recent Turkish history, 340 Turkish military strength, 340 Changes in the present century, 341 Mahmud II., 343 The growth of local power, 343 Mo- hammed AIT in Egypt and Ali Pasha of Janina, 343 Destruc- tion of the Janissaries, 344 The Greek rebellion, 345 Navarino, 346 Russian war, 346 Treaty of Adrianople, 349

War with Egypt, 349  Hunkiar Iskelesi, 349  Treaty of 

1841, 350 Abd-ul-Mejid, 350 Sir Stratford Canning, 350 Reform in Turkey, 352 The Hungarian refugees, 354 The Holy Places, 355 The Crimean war, 356 Treaty of Paris, 358 Repudiation by Russia of Black Sea clause, 359 Rumania, 359 Abd-ul-Aziz, 360 Murad Y., 360 Abd-ul- Hamid II., 360 The Bulgarian atrocities, 360 The latest Russo-Turkish war, 361 Plevna, 361 The Treaty of Berlin, 362 Shrunken dimensions of the Ottoman Empire, 363 Conclusion, 364.







 

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