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Story of the Moors in Spain Free Online Islamic e Books Islamicebooks






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Story of the Moors in Spain

THE history of Spain offers us a melancholy con- trast. Twelve hundred years ago, Tarik the Moor added the land of the Visigoths to the long catalogue of kingdoms subdued by the Moslems. For nearly eight centuries, under her Mohammedan rulers, Spain set to all Europe a shining example of a civilized and enlightened State. Her fertile provinces, rendered doubly prolific by the industry and engineering skill of her conquerors, bore fruit an hundredfold. Cities innumerable sprang up in the rich valleys of the Guadelquivir and the Guadiana, whose names, and names only, still commemorate the vanished glories of their past. Art, literature, and science prospered, as they then prospered nowhere else in Europe. Students flocked from France and Germany and England to drink from the fountain of learning which flowed only in the cities of the Moors. The surgeons and doctors of Andalusia were in the van of science : women were encouraged to devote themselves to serious study, and the lady doctor was not unknown among the people of Cordova.


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CONTENTS.

THE LAST OF THE GOTHS ....

The seclusion of Ancient Arabia, I Change caused by the Prophet Mohammed, 2 The Saracen conquests, 3 Ceuta attacked, 4 Condition of Spain, 4 Effects of Roman rule, 5 The Visigoths, 6 Demoralization of all classes, 7 Witiza, 8 Roderick, 8 Story of Florinda, 1 1 Count Julian's revenge, II He joins the Arabs, 12 Musa son of Noseyr, 12 First incursion into Spain under Tarif, 13 Tank's invasion, 13 The Enchanted Tower, 14 Roderick's vision, 1 8 Battle of the Guadalete, 20 Fate of Don Rod- rigo, 21.


II. THE WAVE OF CONQUEST

Subjugation of Spain, 23 Capture of Cordova, Malaga, Elvira, Murcia, 24 Theodemir's stratagem, 25 Flight of the Goths, 26 Musa crosses over to Spain, 27 His jealousy of Tarik, and recall, 28 Invasion of Aquitaine, and capture of Narbonne, 28 Battle of Tours, 29 A boundary set to the Moorish advance by Charles Martel, 30 Charlemagne invades Spain, 33 The Pass of Roncesvalles, 34 Death of Roland, 36.

III. THE PEOPLE OF ANDALUSIA

The limits of the Moorish territory, 39 Division between the north and the south, 40 Andalusia, 43 Condition of the people after the Conquest, 44 Taxation, 47 Moderation of the Moors, 47 State of the slaves, 48 The renegades, 49 Factions among the victors, 50 Arab tribal jealousies, 51 The Berbers or Moors proper, 52 Their superstitious charac- ter, 53 Berber insurrections in Africa and Spain, 54 Syrian Arabs come to the rescue, 55 Their settlement in Anda- lusia, 56.

IV. A YOUNG PRETENDER

The Khalifs of Damascus, 58 Overthrow of the Omeyyads, 59 Adventures of Abd-er- Rahman the Omeyyad, 60 He lands in Spain and is received with acclamation, 62 Founda- tion of the Omeyyad kingdom of Andalusia, 63 Revolts suppressed by Abd-er-Rahman, 64 His character, 66 Hisham I., 71 His piety and virtues, 71 Power of the priests, 72 Yahya the theologian, 73 Accession of Hakam 74 His genial character, 74 Revolt of the zealots, 75 Burning of the southern suburb of Cordova, 76.

V. CHRISTIAN MARTYRS

Abd-er-Rahman II., 78 Queen Tarub,,8i Ziryab the ex- quisite, 81 Frivolity of the Court, 82 Christian fanaticism, 84 A race for martyrdom, 85 St. Eulogius and Flora, 86 Death of Perfectus, 89 More "martyrs, ".90 Indifference of the majority of the Christians, 90 Moderation counselled by the Church, 91 Flora and Eulogius in prison, 92 Their martyrdom, 93.

VI. THE GREAT KHALIF

Large movements of race and creed in Andalusia, 96 The need of a great king, 98 Abdallah's weakness, 98 General anarchy, 101 Ibn-Hafsun's rebellion, 102 Ibn-Hajjaj of

XV Seville

Seville, 105 Cordova in danger, 106 Accession of Abd-er- Rahman in., 107 His courageous policy, 108 Submission of the rebels, 109 Death of Ibn-Hafsun and conquest of Bobastro, no Siege of Toledo, no Surrender, 113 Paci- fication of Andalusia, 113.

VII. HOLY WAR

Rahman's principle of government, 1 14 The Slavs, t Warswith the Fatimite Khalifs of Africa, 115 Pelayo and the Christians of the Asturias, 116 Growth of the Christian power, 117 Alfonso's campaigns, 118 The soldiery of Leon, 119 Ordono's forays, 119 Battle of St. Estevan de Gormaz, 120 Abd-er-Rahman retaliates, 120 Battle of the Val de i Junqueras and capture of Pamplona, 121 Abd-er-Rahman assumes the title of Khalif, 121 Annual campaigns against the Christians, 122 Ramiro defeats him at Alhandega, 123 ^ Jealousies among the Christians, 123 Fernando Gonzalez, "" 123 Queen Theuda and Sancho the Fat invoke the KhaliPs aid, 125 Their visit to Cordova, 'J26 Hazdai the physician, 126 Death of Abd-er-Rahman ill., 126 His achievements and character, 127.


VIII. THE CITY OF THE KHALIF

Beauty of Cordova, 129 Gardens, 131 Palaces, 132 Baths, 135 The Great Mosque, 136 "The City of the Fairest," 139 Reception at Medinat-ez-Zahra, 142 Science and letters cultivated under the Moors, 144 Condition of the arts in Andalusia, 147.


IX. THE PRIME MINISTER

Hakam II., 152 His library, 155 Hisham II., 156 Se- clusion in the harim, 156 The Queen-mother Aurora, 156 Harim influence, 157 Rise of Ibn-Abl-Amir, surnamed Al- manzor, J57 His campaign with Ghalib against the Chris- tians, 159 He becomes Prime Minister, 160 His absolute rule, 161 Policy, 162 Fortitude, 162 Resource, 162 The new army, 163 Campaigns against the Christians of the North, 164 Invasion of Leon, Barcelona, and Galicia, 165 Capture of St. Santiago de Compostella, 165 Unchecked victories, 166 Death, 166 " Buried in Hell,'/ 166.

X. THE BERBERS IN POWER

Anarchy after Almanzor's death, 167 His sons, 169 Suc- cession of puppet Khalifs, 170 Misery of Hisham in., 171 Massacres and pillaging, 172 The Slavs and the Berbers, 175 Sack of the City of Ez-Zahra, 175 Petty dynasties, 176 Advance of the Christians of Leon^and Castile, 176 -Al- fonso VI., 177 The Cid, 177 The Moors call in the Almora- \ vides, 178 Battle of Zallaka, 179 Character of the Almora-, ^ vides, j 80 They subdue Andalusia,' 181 Their tyranny and demoralization, 183 The expulsion of the Almora vides, 184.


XI. EL CID THE CHALLENGER

State of the Christian powers in the North, FeraajadflLW.. 186 Vassalage of the Mohammedan princes, 1 86 Character of the Christians and Moors contrasted, 189 The chevaliers ~3> Industrie, 191 The Cid Rodrigo de Bivar, 191 His title of Campeador, 191 His panegyrists, 192 Dozy's "real Cid," 192 The Chronicle of the Cid, 193 Heroic character, 193 The Cid's first appearance in history, 195 His services to Castile, 195 His banishment, 195 Takes service with the Moorish king of Zaragoza, 200 Fights against the Christians of Barcelona, 201 At Valencia, 205 Raid upon Leon, 206 Siege of Valencia, 206 Battle with the Almoravides, 209 Death and burial of the Cid, 213.

XII. THE KINGDOM OF GRANADA

Invasion of Andalusia by the Almohades, 214 Victory at Alarcos, 217 Defeat at Las Navas, 217 Expulsion of the

XV 11 Almohades

Almohades, 217 Advance of the Christians, 217 Granada ' alone left to the Moors, 218 Dynasty of the Beny-Nasr of \ Granada, 218 Their tribute to Castile, 221 The Alhambra, 221 Ferdinand and Isabella, 232 Abul- Hasan (Alboacen) throws off his allegiance, 232 Capture of Zahara, 233 Fall of Alhama, 235 Disasters of the Christians in the mountains of Malaga, 236 Defeat of the Moors at Lucena, 242 Boabdil made prisoner, 245.


XIII. THE FALL OF GRANADA

Ferdinand's policy towards Boabdil, 246 Factions at Gra- nada, 247 The Abencerrages, 247 Ez-Zaghal, 248 Ferdi- nand's campaigns, 251 Siege of Velez and Malaga, 251 Ez- Zegry's defence, 253 The surrender, 254 Siege of Baza, 258 Ez-Zaghal submits, 259 His fate, 259 Granada threatened, 260 Musa's reply, 260 The siege, 263 Exploit of Pulgar, 264 Boabdil capitulates, 266 Death of Musa, 266 Entry of Ferdinand and Isabella into the Alhambra, 266 "The last sigh of the_Mppr, "^267.

XIV. BEARING THE CROSS

Terms of surrender of Granada, 269 Archbishop Talavera's toleration, 269 Cardinal Ximenes, 269 Revolt in the Al- puxarras, 271 Defeat and death of Aguilar, 271 Persecution of the Moriscos, 272 Second revolt in the Alpuxarras, 274 Character of the country, 274 Heroism of the Christians, 276 The plank of Tablete, 276 Massacre of the Moors in the Albaycin gaol, 277 Aben Umeyya and Aben Abo, 277 Don John of Austria, 278 Banishment of the Moors, 279 Rejoic- ings in Spain, 279 Retribution, 280.


 

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